Wednesday, March 2, 2011

MyNotes - Creatively Repurposing Technology - TPACK

As budget cuts "decimate" school budgets, resulting in the termination of instructional technology departments in school districts like Austin, Houston, and others, it's critical we remember how technology can help us be more innovative. One way of representing this transition is the video for a quick overview:

TPACK Radio/Video Show ISTE 2010 from Punya Mishra on Vimeo.
via Punya Mishra

All this came to mind upon reading my Spring, 2011 issue of the Journal of Research on Technology in Education featuring Dr. Judi Harris' and Mark J. Hoffer, Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Action: A Descriptive Study of Secondary Teachers' Curriculum-based, Technology-Related Instructional Learning (JRTE | Vol. 43, No. 3, pp. 211-229) from ISTE.

Here are my notes on Harris' and Hofer's article:

  1. Successful technology integration is rooted primarily in curriculum content and content-related learning processes, and secondarily in savvy use of educational technologies.
  2. K-12 teachers' planning must occur at the nexus of curriculum requirements, students' learning needs, available technologies' affordances and constraints, and the realities of school and classroom contents.
  3. TPACK is knowledge that results from teachers' concurrent and interdependent understanding of content, general pedagogy, technology and learning contexts.
  4. 4 Intersections of knowledge types:
    1. Pedagogical content knowledge - how to teach specific content-based material
    2. Technological content knowledge - how to select technologies that best embody and support particular content-based precepts
    3. Technological pedagogical knowledge - how to use particular technologies in teaching
    4. Technological pedagogical content knowledge - how to teach specific content-based material, using technologies that best embody and support it, in ways that are appropriately matched to students' needs and preferences
  5. Given TPACK's is no small wonder why sustained, large scale technology integration efforts in K-12 schools to date have been only minimally successful.
  6. Learning activities are differentiated by content area. 
  7. Sample Knowledge Building Activity Types
    1. Activity Type: Listen to Audio
    2. Description: Students listen to audio recordings of speeches, music, radio broadcasts, oral histories, and lectures; digital or nondigital
    3. Possible technologies: Digital audio archives, podcasts (e.g. Great Speeches in History), audiobooks
  8. Sample Convergent Knowledge Expression Activity Types
    1. Activity Type: Complete a review activity.
    2. Description: Students engage in some sort of Q&A to review content; paper-based to game-show format using multimedia presentation tools
    3. Possible Technologies: Student-response systems (SRS), interactive whiteboard review games (e.g. Jeopardy), survey tools.
  9. Sample Divergent Knowledge Expression Activity Types
    1. Activity Type: Draw a Cartoon
    2. Description: Students create a drawing or caricature using paper and pencil or digital format.
    3. Possible Technologies: Comic creation software, drawing software, scanner
  10. The authors identified 44 activity types divided into two categories including 1) Knowledge building  and 2) Knowledge expression. Find the complete list of ATs online at
  11. "There is no single technological solution that applies for every teacher, every course, or every view of teaching. Quality teaching requires developing a nuanced understanding of the complex relationships [among] technology, content, and pedagogy, and using this understanding to develop appropriate, context-specific strategies and representations." (Source: Mishra and Koehler as cited)
  12. "Integrating technology is not about technology--it is primarily about content and effective instructional practices. Technology involves the tools with which we deliver content and implement practices in better ways. Its focus must be on curriculum and learning. Integration is defined not by the amount or type of technology used, but by how and why it is used." (Earle (2002) as cited)

Save Austin Schools 
Get Blog Updates via Email!
Enter your email address:
Delivered by FeedBurner

Everything posted on Miguel Guhlin's blogs/wikis are his personal opinion and do not necessarily represent the views of his employer(s) or its clients. Read Full Disclosure

No comments:

The Courage to Lead