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MyNotes - Instructor-Made Videos as a Learner Scaffolding Tool
Source for this post comes from:
Pan, G., Sen, S., Starrett, D., Rodgers, M., Tikoo, M., & Powell, D. (2010). The effectiveness of video component: An expanded follow-up investigation. In J. Sanchez & K. Zhang (Eds.), Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2010 (pp. 2067-2072). Chesapeake, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education. Retrieved from Ed/ITLib Digital Library. (35857)
Instructor-Made Videos as a Learner Scaffolding Tool
instructor-made videos (IMVs) of three to 10 minutes in length on problematic topics or subject matter areas were produced for business, chemistry, and mathematics courses.
Initial findings revealed that multimodal IMVs involving the demonstration, illustration, and presentation of key terms, knowledge, skills, and resources can help students understand important procedures, structures, or mechanisms in previously problematic content. Simply stated, IMVs can have a positive impact on student learning.
69% of Internet users and 52% of adults in the United States have watched or downloaded videos online (Purcell, 2010).
Videos would represent 50% of total data transfers on the Internet by 2012 (Madden, 2007).
Some professors use short YouTube videos to empower and motivate their students (Bonk, 2011).
38% of adult Internet users watch educational videos online, and that number is expected to rise significantly (Purcell, 2010)
Video incorporates multimedia resources, including text, images, sound, and speech, that when integrated effectively, form a powerful teaching and learning tool.
When a student processes and later reprocesses information, each medium reinforces the others while adding to the authenticity and reality of the learning context (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989). As a result of their visual and auditory messages, videos extend learning to visual or episodic memory and help foster students' dual coding of information (Bonk, 2011; Paivio, 1986)
Video is also believed to have a nurturing value for instruction and to serve as an effective way to motivate learners, maintain their attention, and provide learning satisfaction (Choi & Johnson, 2005, 2007; Koumi, 2006; Mackey & Ho, 2008).
Learners become active in the video learning environment, able to pause, stop, skip, and/or rewind sections to review problematic content until understanding is achieved. Stated another way, video delivery of content allows students to choose what to watch, when to watch, and where to watch.
By enabling students to access and make use of the course content at their own pace, the online initiatives transformed the role of the instructors from that of demonstrators to a facilitative role in which they assisted the students in just-in-time learning. As such, video is an ideal vehicle for self-paced and self-directed learning. Hartsell and Yuen (2006), in fact, argue that learner control is the main advantage of incorporating streamed videos into distance learning courses.
online courses emphasize just-in-time learning and a customer-oriented approach by assisting students in better organizing and managing knowledge (Keengwe & Kidd, 2010; Mason, 2001; Hall, 2000)
Easy availability of online learning materials through portable devices like laptops, iPads, or iPods enables just-in-time learning for modern day students that often have to study in between work breaks or during commutes (Evan, 2008).
Videos are believed to capture a student's attention more effectively than other media.
beneficial aspects of videos also include attention-grabbing moving images, easy and repeated access to content, and the capability of modeling different ways to explain the same content (Branigan, 2005; Rose, 2009).
Hove and Corcoran (2008) reported that students with unlimited access to video capture of lectures performed significantly better than those without such access.
In a study on streaming video of captured lectures, Veeramani and Bradley (2008) found that 82% of more than 7,000 students preferred courses with an online lecture option because the captured lectures were deemed either "very important" or "somewhat important" for improving the retention of class content (78%) and improving their test scores (76%).
A key problem is that streamed videos used for teaching and learning are often 40 minutes or longer.
Poorly designed videos may not align well with course objectives or explicitly delineate key course concepts and principles (Williams, 2007).
videos produced on educational budgets rarely approximate the quality that students are accustomed to viewing on television or in motion pictures.
IMVs are videos that offer introductions to the instructor and other aspects of the course. In an IMV, the instructor might discuss weekly topics, detail course assignments, highlight aspects of the syllabus, offer test reviews, address discussion forum questions, or model difficult procedures and skills (Rose, 2009).
IMVs are brief and concise, typically less than 10 minutes in length.
What makes IMVs stand out is their scaffolding role – addressing those concepts that are the most difficult and typically cannot be resolved independently when students first encounter them.
Scaffolding is a supporting structure, base, or outline for learning. It is the "process through which learning efforts are supported" (Hannafin, Land, & Oliver, 1999, p. 131) by various means.
"conceptual scaffolding" can be provided to help learners identify key conceptual knowledge related to a problem.
With conceptual scaffolding, students may find that some tools are recommended for addressing the problem at a particular time.
The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury (video) series produced by John Bransford and the Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt (CTGV, 1990, 1991) was an early attempt to use videos as scaffolding tools. In the Jasper Woodbury series, students were provided with multiple opportunities to solve complex mathematical problems as well as communicate their thinking strategies and findings. Controllable variables (also called "crucial factors") were embedded in the series for students to reflect on and change (Chen & Hung, 2002). By solving these problems, students learned to manipulate the variables, observed how each variable interacted with the others, and gained an understanding of the relationships between the variables and outcomes (Chen & Hung, 2002). Student learning was facilitated through the process of scaffolding where the students' control of the number of variables was "systematically reduced in order to increase the complexity" and, consequently, student problem-solving capability (Chen & Hung, 2002, p. 151). To foster interdisciplinary thinking and more richly connected learning, students in the Jasper Woodbury project were also encouraged to make connections to other content areas and domains such as science, social studies, literature, and history (Vanderbilt University Peabody College, 1992).
Bonk (2011) used short YouTube videos in his courses to present behavioral concepts, motivation, cognitive theory, and other related course concepts. Situating learning in context, modeling certain skills and procedures, and accompanying instruction with visual and auditory messages, he found that web-based videos enable instructors and students to "personalize learning and make ideas come to life" (p. 153)
online videos represent helpful interactions between novice students and a more capable other. In effect, they provide the "process through which learning efforts are supported" (Hannafin et al., 1999, p. 131). As a result of such scaffolded support, students become capable of doing something beyond their independent efforts (CTGV, 1992).
IMVs appeared to play a highly positive role in terms of scaffolding student learning as well as instructor reflection on their own pedagogical practices. IMVs enabled students to see and hear their instructors. Such direct connections immediately bridged the gap that exists between students and their instructors in many online courses.
The instructors' demonstration, illustration, and presentation in the IMVs consisted of key terms, knowledge, skills, and resources that helped reveal related procedures, structures, or mechanisms for coping with and resolving problematic cases that the students encountered.
more students were able to grasp content that previously was beyond their reach.
Not too surprisingly, such just-in-time learning support was highly valued and long remembered. Learner emotions (i.e., high degree of satisfaction) and cognitions (i.e., enhanced conceptual learning) were intertwined. Stated another way, affect was tied to cognition. This is also in line with the findings of Evan's (2008) study, wherein students valued the flexibility available from the podcasts, which enabled them to study whenever and wherever they wanted.
The students might not have known what scaffolding meant, but their testimonials revealed deep appreciation for it. In fact, many stated that the instructor demonstrations, illustrations, and presentations in the IMVs offered "more clarification and in-depth information" about the topics and subject matter areas in question. In addition, these videos "added to the mix" of resources in their learning environment and helped them to "learn things that [they] might be confused about." As a result, with timely scaffolding from the IMVs, students were able to complete labs and comprehend readings that might otherwise have seemed impossible.
The findings show that the length of IMVs was not a decisive factor in student satisfaction. In contrast to expectations arising from the pilot study, whose findings suggest videos of 10 minutes or less are ideal, short videos were not necessarily the most popular. The responses from students show that sometimes it took longer than 10 minutes to clearly present an idea. When the concepts were clear, many of the students did not mind how long it took. Yet, it is always recommended to effectively portray an idea within the student's attention span.
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